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An overview of human infections caused by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius: A zoonotic risk of the oldest friend

Author:

MAR Priyantha

Veterinary Research Institute, LK
About MAR
Veterinary Research Officer, Bacteriology Division, Veterinary Research Institute, PO Box 20, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
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Abstract

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is colonized in 90% of healthy dogs and the infection has also been reported in humans who have close contact with dogs.  S. pseudintermedius is a Gram positive coagulase positive coccus which is an opportunistic pathogen. Human infection has been reported less frequently either due to misidentification or misdiagnosis or to underreporting. The objective of this overview is to highlight the epidemiology, clinical presentation, importance of laboratory tests and antimicrobial resistance of S. pseudintermedius in humans.

Human infections of S. pseudintermedius have been reported as case studies or clusters of infections in the literature. Several cases have been reported among the adult population, and in patients with metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, immunocompromised states such as AIDS, cancers, and autoimmune diseases.  The organism had been isolated and identified both in healthy people and individuals with adverse clinical outcomes. S. pseudintermedius causes skin and soft tissue infections, catheter associated infections and surgical site infections in humans. The incidence of skin and soft tissue infection by S. pseudintermedius in humans was 0.025% in Canada. Methicillin resistance S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has been isolated both in healthy people and associated with clinical infections. MRSP is often multidrug resistant and therapeutic options are limited. Multidrug resistance has been detected in methicillin susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP). Close association of a canine host is the major risk factor in humans and vulnerable individuals need to be persuaded to practice hygienic practices to minimize the risk of zoonotic infection.

In conclusion, differentiation of S. pseudintermedius from S. aureus is required to understand the epidemiology of the disease, diagnosis, clinical presentation, and further interpretation of antimicrobial resistance in the human clinical context. Suitable hygienic practices post handling of dogs and improvement of laboratory facilities would help minimize the incidence of S. pseudintermedius infections in humans.

How to Cite: Priyantha, M., 2022. An overview of human infections caused by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius: A zoonotic risk of the oldest friend. Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases, 12(1), pp.E1 1–8. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/sljid.v12i1.8415
Published on 07 Feb 2022.
Peer Reviewed

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